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Global Research on Coronavirus Disease

research

The global pandemic situation has brought researchers from different nations together to create facilities that will accelerate the research and development process to create new health standards. The global health professionals are working together to contain Covid-19 and provide the right medical facilities for infected people. WHO has already created and activated an R&D Blueprint to form new diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics to deal with Covid-19. Each nation affected by a pandemic must receive the right access to health products and services.

According to the latest report by WHO, over 4 million new cases were reported in the last week of December 2020. Compared to the previous week, the last week of December saw a 12% decrease in the number, but this data still needs to be interpreted properly due to the holiday season. The death rate decreased by 8%. America accounts for 48% of the new cases, with 42% of all new deaths in the world. The European region also accounted for 37% of new cases and 42% of deaths. However, the pandemic situation seems more controlled in Europe compared to previous months. The South-East Asian region also experienced a decrease in new cases and deaths. However, the African region saw a 20% growth in the new cases, yet the new cases are low compared to other regions. The Western Pacific region experienced an increase of 13% in new cases and 4% in deaths. By the end of December, over 79.2 million cases were registered, with 1.7 million deaths since the beginning of Covid-19.

ge-global-research-office

According to the report submitted in WHO, a variant of SARS-CoV02 has been detected in South Africa. The initial analysis suggested that the new variant, 501Y.V2, will spread faster between people. The research team is yet to announce whether the new infection will be any severe than the previous infection and whether the vaccines be completely effective.

Top Five Effective Countries in the Last Week of December 2020

  • The United States of America remains the leading Covid-19 affected country with over 1.3 million cases but has seen a 19% decrease compared to the previous week.
  • Brazil is the second most affected country with 285,000 cases, with a 12% decrease from the past week’s reports.
  • The United Kingdom is the third most affected country alongside Northern Ireland, with over 251 000 cases and a 45% increase.
  • The Russian Federation experienced 201 000 cases with a 3% increase from the previous week.
  • India has experienced 156 000 new cases in the last week of December 2020, with a 10% decrease from the previous week.

Global Research Database

WHO is working on new research with the help of an international team to find information on Covid-19. The R&D department is busy gathering multilingual scientific findings and data for Coronavirus, with its database getting updated on a daily basis. The WHO retrieval subgroup has started collaborating with partners to enrich their database.

8 Types of Scientists

When we think about scientists, the first image that comes to our minds is the white coat and highly technology labs. However, not all scientists work in such facilities. In fact, most scientists work outside the labs in the business and education sectors. Several career options require the knowledge and experience of a scientist. Here are the eight types of scientists working in different sectors today.

Business scientists

They possess great scientific knowledge and skills to understand the core of the business and implement smart decision-making skills. They help the companies and other enterprises in R&D to introduce new technology and suggest good profitable investments.

Business scientists

Developer scientists

They are known to use public knowledge as the source to innovate things that society can benefit from. Their innovations can range from products to services, healthcare, and even a new device. They can also create influential papers that change the ideas of society. They also work with new businesses and help their ideas enter the market.

Communicator scientists

These scientists possess the quality of using science and technology to develop communication between people. They can implement smart ways to get their message to reach a mass audience. They also possess the expertise of how media channels work and use their knowledge to spread awareness in public.

Entrepreneur scientists

They are the entrepreneurs who work on innovative products that can be implemented for business and in society. They possess the management skills, knowledge, and strong understanding of business to start their own business or support the startups that match their ideas.

Entrepreneur scientists

Investigator scientists

They implement their observational, mapping, and understanding skills to collect in-depth data and translate it into information that everyone can understand. Investigator scientists are usually found in universities and research centers. They can also lead an R&D team for an organization to work on their research products.

Explorer scientists

Explorer scientists rather work to search for something new in a given field than to be innovative with what they already have. Instead of focusing on the outcome, they are more interested in learning something new. They are also found in the research department of universities and R&D departments of organizations.

Policy scientists

They carry the knowledge of both science and government to create new technology and development policies. While they are scientists, they can also play a role as a politician. Policy scientists are appointed in major roles at parliament and other government authorities. They work to develop NGOs, charities, and campaigning groups.

Policy scientists

Regulator scientists

Their role involves checking new technology and systems and assure the public that they are reliable. They monitor and regulate things before they enter the market. While they may not get involved in lab works, they possess the knowledge of the importance of new applications in the market.

Exploring Social Cognitive Theory

Exploring Social Cognitive Theory

Throughout history, we have come across all kinds of theories that tend to shed light on a particular concept or so. It may talk about human behaviour, and it may also talk about any other subject in particular. Due to that, theories have always gained a lot of prominences, and one such theory that moves along the same definition is social cognitive theory. Since it holds the ground of importance, it is quite obvious that you need to know such stuff. So here’s a brief take on social cognitive theory.

Introduction

Social Cognitive Theory wasn’t always referred to by the same name because it initially came forward to be known as the Social Learning Theory that was developed by Albert Bandura. Later in 1986, it evolved into a dynamic concept and helped the world study Social Cognitive Theory. As a unique theory, it focuses on social influence and its emphasis on the external and internal parts of social reinforcement. As a result, it considers the manner in which individuals acquire and maintain behaviour, keeping in mind the environment in which they perform the same.

Due to the theory’s extensive line of focus, it tends to involve an individual’s past experiences and how it forms an influence for the path ahead. So by the end of it, people will be aware of the right kind of results and how well the theory fits in to make sense for the better.

The Goal

The main goal of SCT is to explain how people tend to regulate their behaviour through reinforcement and control in order to achieve a goal-directed behaviour that moves along to be maintained over time. Since the theory evolved into something dynamic and different, the constructs that it follows are quite essential and helps one to stay focused on the given subject. So without further ado, here are the five constructs of SCT.

  1. Behavioural Capability – it tends to refer to an individual’s ability to perform a behaviour through the use of knowledge and skills.
  2. Observational Learning – it tends to refer and assert the fact that people can witness and observe a behaviour that is conducted by others and then move ahead to reproduce those very actions.
  3. Reciprocal Determinism – known as the central concept of SCT, reciprocal determinism refers to the dynamic and reciprocal interaction of an individual, environment, and behaviour.
  4. Expectations & Self-efficacy – while expectations refer to the anticipated consequences of an individual’s behaviour, self-efficacy refers to the level of an individual’s confidence with their ability to successfully perform a particular behaviour.
  5. Reinforcements – the internal or external response to an individual’s behaviour tends to affect the likelihood of either continuing or discontinuing the behaviour.

Decoding Conversation Analysis

Decoding Conversation

The different types of analysis that are present in the world tends to move around with the primary outcome of wanting to reach a perfect conclusion. Thanks to that, analysis is conducted for various reasons and is always focused on achieving the right results. Among the different types, conversation analysis is a popular one, and it holds the ground of importance. Due to that, we are here to shed more light on the same and help you understand all about it.

Decoding Conversation

Introduction

Conversation analysis is nothing but a specific form of enquiry or investigation that looks into the conversation between two or more individuals as they talk with each other, all for the sake of talking. It is more of sociability that reflects on individual ability and the willingness to interact with one another. While the analysis is viewed as a study of talk, in a more advanced or broader sense, it is the study of people talking together or even the study of language use.

Thanks to all that, conversation analysis is an essential form of analysis that can be used to interpret a lot of results and help researchers make the most of them.

Decoding Conversation Analysis

The Significance

The significant part of conversation analysis is the fact that the approach of social actions holds some form of importance to those who tend to initiate it. Since they are naturally organized, careful examination can be used to study the process and look beyond the results that come from the same. While it may seem like a study about normal conversations, it goes further to decode several facts, including the hidden rules, structures, and the purpose behind creating such a conversation.

Due to that, conversation analysis understands how people interact with each other through a natural conversation. The main focus will always be on how these sequences are generated and how effortlessly it carries forward. As it moves further, the analysis will bring in more information, and researchers will have a lot to interpret, study, and understand.

The Types

When it comes to the different types of conversation analysis, you need to know that the system takes two forms. One, the initiation of interaction, which is viewed as an entity by itself, and second, is where the research focuses on studying social institutions that are managed in an interaction. As a result, both these types bring out different results and help conduct a more informative and useful study than one can imagine.

Conclusion

Exploring conversation analysis is indeed an important task that is bound to help everyone make the most of it. As a result, you need to understand this simple write up and look beyond the concept of conversation analysis.

Understanding Social Behavioural Theories

Social Behavioural

Social behavioural theories and cognitive theories are important ones that tend to reflect upon human behaviour and help us understand a lot about life. These theories are all based on facts and thus stands to be reliable for all the right reasons. Due to that, exploring these theories will undoubtedly help you gain a lot and move along to head things in the right direction. So to help you get started, here is a brief take on a few social behavioural theories.

The Classical Conditioning Theory

The classical conditioning theory is an important one that informs us about our response to a situation and how it becomes attached to new situations. As a result, the theory tends to take us back in time and help us recall a situation that was quite close to what we are currently experiencing. For example, a particular smell or a product might remind us of our younger days and the different kinds of activities that we used to do as a child.

The situation need not be anything in particular and can range between different activities based on the kind of experiences that you are going through. Thanks to all that, the theory keeps us informed about such events and helps us understand the importance behind the same. It also explains how we develop emotional responses to people, events, and various other situations.

Social Learning Theory

Social Learning Theory

Without Albert Bandura and his contributions, we wouldn’t be getting to know more about social learning theory and the definition that it stands to provide. The theory and its leading contributor focuses all its attention on the many ways through which human action is learned through imitation and not conditioning. For example, young children can learn a lot from their parents, and it generally happens through the art of imitation.

Adolescents, employees who want to rank higher and other kinds of individuals always follow the one on top to replicate their actions and get things done with ease. Due to that, the social learning theory stands to be complete and keeps us informed of our actions and the main reasons behind them.

Operant Conditioning

Unlike classical conditioning theory, operant conditioning focuses on a conscious type of learning where an individual does something in order to see what effect it might bring. In other words, the theory tries to explain how we repeat behaviours as they tend to pay for us. The theory gained its form from a principle known as the law of effect and was authored by a psychologist named Thorndike. Due to that, it is generally known that humans will repeat an action if it is followed by an effect that we are found off.

List of Behaviour Research Methods

Behaviour Research

There are different kinds of research methods intended to find the right kind of results to complete a given project. Be it behavioural research or descriptive research, everything moves accordingly and brings out a particular outcome. But how does one get to the result of the matter? Well, the simplest answer is methods, and we are going to be talking about the different kinds of research methods. So go ahead and read the following to know more.

Experiment

One of the most common methods of research are experiments, and it tends to be conducted for a lot of reasons. As a broad concept, experiments are known to bring out the right kind of results and take you closer to the outcome that you wanted to experience. It has a lot to deal with and does so with ease, provided you follow the rules and regulations. Due to that, the manner in which you conduct an experiment also comes under question, and it needs to be followed accurately.

experiments

Case Study

As a qualitative research method, case studies are quite useful and move around a whole concept. It is a form of observation that can be used for a particular group or even a particular individual. By either interviewing subjects or asking them to answer a questionnaire, case studies complete the process and help you get to the endpoint of the matter. Thanks to all that, case studies come close to experiments and help one seek the kind of outcome they have always wanted.

Survey

Surveys are popularly known as a “shotgun” approach to research and move along with self-reported data. Since it can also be subjective, they tend to involve a lot of subjects and is a quantitative method that comes to a conclusion. While there are people who prefer other methods over conducting a survey, it manages to bring out results and help you reach the perfect conclusion. Due to that, surveys are another essential form of research that can also be helpful in behavioural research.

Content Analysis

Content analysis is a unique method of research that gains results from media such as print, radio, television, and so on. It does so to capture the repetition of specific words or ideas. As a result, it is a quantitative method and employs mathematical data about the words or concepts. While the method is useful for various kinds of studies, it finds importance in advertising and predicting behaviour in specific populations.

Content Analysis

Conclusion

There are different ways to collect information and follow the process of behaviour research. These four methods are valuable and tend to bring out the results that expand the study and takes it forward to the right extent.

The Most Popular Research Papers Everyone Was Talking About This Year

Research Papers

Every year the academic world keeps working to discover something new. Today the whole world can access information with the help of the internet. More knowledge enthusiasts are getting engaged in science and are submitting their research papers from around the world to get recognized internationally. The research papers range from the medical field to new technological innovations and their impact on society. The popularity of research papers do not depend on the views but the importance and how it will change the future research and development. The scientists and researchers publishing their papers today have spent years in their work to provide some of the most influential papers to the readers. Here are the most popular research papers in the past year that people are talking about.

“Hyperactivation of sympathetic nerves drives depletion of melanocyte stem cells.”

This study was conducted by a team led by Bing Zhang, Harvard Stem Cell Institute. The team researched the effects of stress on the hair. The research showed that the effect of premature greying of hair is caused by Marie Antoinette syndrome. The research further questions how stress-induced greying can affect evolutionary steps. Reports suggest that the grey hair animal has a higher social order than an animal of higher age that naturally developed grey hair. The paper became the most talked-about project in Jan 2020.

“Evaluating the Performance of Past Climate Model Projections.”

The paper was submitted by a team of climate scientists from the University of California. The team was lead by Zeke Hausfather that reviewed 17 climate models in their paper. The climate models covered the time of the early 1970s to the late 2000s. The report suggested that 14 of the models can predict accurate warming in the coming years. The report boosts the morale of the researchers in believing that the research done today can be highly accurate.

“Genome-wide CRISPR-Cas 9 Screening reveals ubiquitous T cell cancer-targeting via the monomorphic MHC class I-related protein MR1.”

Projections

This research paper was submitted by the researchers at Cardiff Unversity, UK. The research suggests that one-size-fits-all types of cancer therapies. This newly discovered cell is called a T-cell. T-cells are capable of killing multiple types of human cancer while it protects the non-cancerous cells from getting damaged. The T-cells can provide better immunological functions and can become beneficial research in tumor cell therapy. The paper was well-received by the news outlets and was considered a major advancement in the field of cancer research.

“Parrots can voluntarily help each other to obtain food rewards.”

A fun animal study showed a unique behavior in parrots, called altruistic behavior. This research by Désirée Brucks showed that African grey parrots were helping each other to obtain food. Despite no rewards for themselves in an attempt to provide food to each other, the parrots were doing so voluntarily. The study was conducted in the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, and the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology in Germany.